Celebrating the Spring Holidays

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode October 13, 2019

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode October 13, 2019


>>Thompson: ON THIS EDITION FOR SUNDAY, OCTOBER 13: U.S. TROOPS WITHDRAW FROM NORTHERN SYRIA AS THE TURKISH OFFENSIVE ESCALATES. POLITICS AND A DEBATE PREVIEW WITH JEFF GREENFIELD. AND IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT: A NEWLY NAMED NORTH MACEDONIA SETS ITS SIGHTS ON MEMBERSHIP IN THE E.U AND NATO. NEXT ON “PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.”FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,MEGAN THOMPSON.>>Thompson: GOOD EVENING AND THANK YOU FOR JOINING US. PRESIDENT TRUMP ORDERED THE WITHDRAWAL OF NEARLY ALL 1,000 U.S. TROOPS CURRENTLY IN NORTHERN SYRIA– AS TURKEY WAGES A MILITARY OFFENSIVE AGAINST SYRIAN KURDS IN THE REGION. THE PRESIDENT FIRST ORDERED A SMALL NUMBER OF U.S. TROOPS TO LEAVE THE AREA A WEEK AGO. THIS MORNING DEFENSE SECRETARY MARK ESPER SAID ALL U.S. TROOPS ARE BEING EVACUATED AS TURKISH- BACKED AIR AND GROUND ATTACKS CONTINUED TODAY.>>I SPOKE WITH THE PRESIDENT LAST NIGHT AFTER DISCUSSIONS WITH THE REST OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY TEAM AND HE DIRECTED THAT WE BEGIN A DELIBERATE WITHDRAWAL OF FORCES FROM NORTHERN SYRIA.>>A DELIBERATE WITHDRAWAL FROM THE ENTIRE COUNTRY?>>FROM NORTHERN SYRIA.>>FROM NORTHERN SYRIA.>>RIGHT, WHICH IS WHERE MOST OF OUR FORCES ARE.>>Thompson: TURKISH FORCES HAVE ADVANCED INTO WHAT THEY SAY WILL BE A “SAFE ZONE” IN NORTHERN SYRIA. TURKEY’S PRESIDENT SAID THREATS OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS FROM WESTERN ALLIES WILL NOT STOP TURKEY FROM CARRYING OUT THE MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST KURDISH FORCES.>>(translated): THERE ARE THOSE WHO HAVE SOUGHT TO MEDIATE BETWEEN US AND THE TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. WHAT KIND OF PRIME MINISTER, WHAT KIND OF HEAD OF STATE ARE THEY? IT’S NOT POSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND. WHEN DID YOU SEE A STATE SIT AT A TABLE WITH A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION?>>Thompson: WE WILL HAVE MORE ON TURKEY’S MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN SYRIA COMING UP AFTER THE NEWS SUMMARY. HUNTER BIDEN, THE SON OF DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE AND FORMER VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN, IS STEPPING DOWN FROM HIS UNPAID POSITION ON THE BOARD OF A CHINESE PRIVATE EQUITY FIRM. BIDEN’S ATTORNEY ISSUED A STATEMENT THIS MORNING THAT ADDRESSED HUNTER BIDEN’S DEALINGS IN UKRAINE AND CHINA SAYING HIS CLIENT “WILL AGREE NOT TO SERVE ON BOARDS OF, OR WORK ON BEHALF OF, FOREIGN OWNED COMPANIES” IF HIS FATHER IS ELECTED PRESIDENT. THE DETAILED STATEMENT SAID BIDEN BELIEVED HE HAD ACTED APPROPRIATELY AND IN GOOD FAITH AND “NEVER ANTICIPATED THE BARRAGE OF FALSE CHARGES AGAINST BOTH HIM AND HIS FATHER BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.” IN ADDITION TO THE CHINESE COMPANY, HUNTER BIDEN ALSO SERVED ON THE BOARD OF UKRAINE’S LARGEST PRIVATE GAS COMPANY WHOSE OWNER WAS INVESTIGATED FOR ABUSE OF POWER. HUNTER BIDEN WAS NOT ACCUSED OF ANY WRONGDOING IN THE INVESTIGATION AND RESIGNED FROM THAT COMPANY IN APRIL OF THIS YEAR. AS MANY AS 33 PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND AT LEAST 16 PEOPLE ARE STILL MISSING IN JAPAN TODAY, AS RESCUERS CONTINUE THEIR CLEAN UP AND RESCUE EFFORTS AFTER TYPHOON HAGIBIS MADE LANDFALL SOUTHWEST OF TOKYO. MORE THAN 1,200 HOMES WERE FLOODED AND 187 PEOPLE WERE INJURED IN THE STORM– WHICH OFFICIALS SAY WAS THE WORST IN SIX DECADES. THE TYPHOON WAS DOWNGRADED TO A TROPICAL STORM EARLIER TODAY. FLASH MOB PROTESTS BROKE OUT IN HONG KONG TODAY IN A CONTINUATION OF VIOLENCE THAT BEGAN FIVE MONTHS AGO. THE SMALLER PROTESTS CAME AFTER A RECENT BAN ON WEARING FACE MASKS IN PUBLIC. POLICE IN RIOT GEAR CHASED AND ARRESTED PRO-DEMOCRACY DEMONSTRATORS WHO SHOWED UP IN MALLS, PARKS, AND OTHER LOCATIONS THROUGHOUT THIS AFTERNOON AND INTO THE NIGHT. OFFICIALS SAY A PROTESTOR STABBED A POLICE OFFICER IN THE NECK TODAY. THE OFFICER WAS HOSPITALIZED IN STABLE CONDITION. IN ECUADOR TODAY, RESIDENTS WERE SEEN WALKING AMONG THE DEBRIS LEFT OVER FROM TEN DAYS OF MASSIVE STREET PROTESTS. A 24-HOUR CURFEW BROUGHT TO AN END THE DEMONSTRATIONS. THE CURFEW WAS LIFTED SUNDAY FOR A FEW HOURS. PRESIDENT LENÍN MORENO ORDERED THE MILITARY TO PATROL AROUND THE CLOCK IN ECUADOR’S CAPITAL CITY. YESTERDAY, PROTESTS OVER MORENO’S DECISION TO END FUEL SUBSIDIES THAT TRIGGERED INCREASES IN FOOD PRICES LED TO ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT AND MEDIA BUILDINGS. PRESIDENT MORENO INDICATED HE IS NOT WILLING TO REINSTATE FUEL SUBSIDIES, BUT IS WILLING TO NEGOTIATE OTHER ECONOMIC CHANGES TO END THE PROTESTS.>>Thompson: FOR MORE ON THE ESCALATING MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN SYRIA, I’M JOINED BY SARAH EL DEEB, A REPORTER FOR THE ASSOCIATED PRESS COVERING SYRIA AND LEBANON. SHE JOINS ME NOW VIA SKYPE FROM BEIRUT. SARAH, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE.>>THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.>>Thompson: SO A WITHDRAWAL OF TROOPS OUT OF NORTHERN SYRIA, WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT HOW QUICKLY THAT MIGHT HAPPEN AND WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES GOING TO BE?>>WE CAN’T IMAGINE HOW FAST THIS WILL HAPPEN. BUT ONCE AN ANNOUNCEMENT IS MADE, I THINK WE HAVE TO SEE THEM LEAVE THE AREA, THEY HAVE ALREADY COME UNDER FIRE A NUMBER OF TIMES. FIRST BEFORE THE WEEKEND WHEN A BASE– A SMALL OBSERVATION POINT IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE BORDER CAME UNDER FIRE, WHILE TURKISH AND KURDISH FIGHTERS WERE EXCHANGING PROJECTILES. AND THEN THIS MORNING WE HAVE SEEN CHAOS AND ADVANCING TURKISH BACK FORCES INTO THE TOWN OF AYN ISSA WHICH IS ABOUT 20 MILES AWAY FROM THE BORDER. AND THAT RESULTED IN THE ESCAPE OF A NUMBER OF ISIS SUPPORTERS FROM HOLDING AREAS AND DISPLACED PEOPLES CAMP. AND FROM WHAT I UNDERSTOOD FROM U.S. OFFICIALS THAT I’M TALKING TO IS THAT THEY HAVE NO– THEY COULD NOT CONTROL– THEY COULD NOT GET ENOUGH CLARITY OR LINE OF COMMUNICATION WITH THEIR PARTNERS ON THE GROUND, AND THIS WAS A VERY RISKY SITUATION AS I WAS TOLD FOR THE TROOPS.>>Thompson: TALK A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT THAT, I MEAN, WHAT IS THE CONSEQUENCES OF THESE HUNDREDS OF ISIS FAMILIES ESCAPING FROM THAT CAMP?>>WE ARE JUST RECEIVING REPORTS THAT A CONVOY OF CIVILIANS WITH A BUNCH OF JOURNALISTS MAY HAVE COME UNDER FIRE FROM A TURKISH AIR STRIKE WITH TURKISH SHELLS. WE ARE STILL TRYING TO FIGURE OUT THE DETAILS OF THAT, SO, THAT IS ONE THING. AND THEN YOU HAVE PICTURES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN LEAVING THE CAMP WHERE THEY ARE BEING HELD, THIS CAMP HAD ABOUT 900 FOREIGN CHILDREN AND MOTHERS, THESE ARE FAMILIES OF ISIS, SO WHAT WE UNDERSTOOD ALSO FROM OFFICIALS IN THE AREA IS THAT SOME OF THE PEOPLE IN THE CAMP WERE CLOSETED ISIS SUPPORTERS. AND WHEN THIS HAPPENED THERE WAS A LOT OF VIOLENCE AND PUSHBACK AGAINST THE GUARDS AND AGAINST THE SECURITY THAT WERE IN THERE. SO WHILE THIS IS REALLY FAST MOVING, WHAT WE KNOW IS THAT THERE IS NO CONTROL OVER THE SECURITY OF THESE DETENTION CENTERS. THE BIGGER PROBLEM IS THE WHOLE CAMP FURTHER TO THE EAST THAT HAS A LOT MORE FAMILIES OF ISIS, AND WE HEARD LAST MONTH THE LEADER OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ASKED FOR EVERY SUPPORTER OF ISIS TO TRY TO FREE THESE PEOPLE. SO WE DON’T KNOW WHAT KIND OF CONSEQUENCE IT WILL HAVE, BUT IT IS DEFINITELY CHAOS.>>Thompson: MEANWHILE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS ARE IN HARM’S WAY. CAN YOU TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE UNFOLDING HUMANITARIAN CRISIS THERE?>>THIS HAS BEEN FIVE DAYS. AND WE HAVE ALREADY 130, AT LEAST 130,000 CIVILIANS FLEEING THEIR HOMES FROM A STRETCH OF OVER 300 KILOMETERS, WHICH IS ABOUT 250 MILES. AT ONE POINT THE U.S. BASES WERE KIND OF THE SAFE AREA TO BE AROUND. BUT THAT IS CLEARLY NO LONGER THE CASE. PEOPLE ARE RUNNING TO THEIR RELATIVES IN AREAS THAT ARE FURTHER TO THE SOUTH, THERE’S ABOUT 20 OR SO SHELTERS THAT WERE SET UP BY THE U.N.– MAYBE MORE, I MEAN, THIS MAY NOT BE THE MOST UPDATED FIGURE. BUT SHELTERS, PEOPLE ON THE RUN, THESE ARE PEOPLE THAT ARE RUNNING, WHILE FIGHTING, IT IS AS CHAOTIC AS I DESCRIBED. AND THE U.S. IS GOING OUT IN THE MEANTIME. IT WAS ALWAYS A SAFETY VALVE OF SOME SORT.>>Thompson: PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS ALSO THREATENED SANCTIONS ON TURKEY IN THE MIDST OF ALL OF THIS. I MEAN, DO WE THINK THAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN AND WHAT EFFECT MIGHT THOSE HAVE?>>WHAT WE HAVE ON THE GROUND IS THAT TURKISH FORCES ARE ADVANCING TO ESTABLISH WHAT THEY HAD SAID THEY WANTED TO, WHICH IS A 30 KILOMETER, 19 MILES DEEP SAFE ZONE BUT WHAT WE HAVE ALSO SEEN IS THAT THERE IS, THERE ARE PROJECTILES AND AIR STRIKES AND SHELLING OUTSIDE OF THAT ZONE ON THE WEST, TO THE RIGHT OR LEFT OF THAT ZONE. AND WHILE PRESIDENT TRUMP A FEW DAYS AGO SAID THAT IF THEY GO TOO FAR, THERE WILL BE HARM TO THE ECONOMY, I DON’T THINK HE EVER DESCRIBED WHAT TOO FAR IS. I WONDER IS THAT TOO FAR OR WHAT IS TOO FAR? IT IS NOT CLEAR TO US FROM WHERE WE’RE LOOKING.>>Thompson: ALL RIGHT, SARAH EL DEEB OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING WITH US TODAY.>>THANK YOU.>>Thompson: IT’S A BUSY WEEK IN POLITICS, INCLUDING THE UPCOMING DEMOCRATIC DEBATE ON TUESDAY IN OHIO. JEFF GREENFIELD JOINS ME NOW FROM SANTA BARBARA FOR SOME ANALYSIS. SO WE HEARD THIS NEWS THIS MORNING ABOUT HUNTER BIDEN. HE’S NOW STEPPING DOWN FROM THE BOARD OF A CHINESE COMPANY. HOW DO YOU THINK THAT’S GONNA PLAY OUT THIS WEEK?>>IT’S AN ISSUE THAT DEMOCRATS RAISE ALL THE TIME ABOUT PRESIDENT TRUMP’S FAMILY WHO ARE STILL ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN TENS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND BUSINESSES. AND I COULD SEE SOME OF JOE BIDEN’S OPPONENTS SAYING, “WELL, YOU KNOW, WAS THAT, WAS THAT A CASE OF GOOD JUDGMENT? HOW COME YOU DIDN’T RAISE THIS WITH YOUR SON WHEN HE WAS BEGINNING TO SIGN ON TO SOME OF THESE COMPANIES?”>>Thompson: WHAT ELSE DO YOU THINK WE’RE GONNA BE HEARING ON TUESDAY FROM THE CANDIDATES?>>SO, I THINK TWO THINGS ARE GONNA COME UP. ONE, I THINK THE INTERROGATORS, THE PANEL THAT ARE GONNA ASK THESE CANDIDATES HOW MUCH THEY IDENTIFY WITH SOME OF THE MORE CONTROVERSIAL POSITIONS THAT SOME HAVE TAKEN. BETO O’ROURKE FOR INSTANCE SUGGESTED THE CHURCHES THAT OPPOSE SAME SEX MARRIAGE BE DEPRIVED OF THEIR TAX EXEMPT STATUS, WHICH IS WIDELY AT VARIANCE OF TRADITIONAL FIRST AMENDMENT NOTIONS. I THINK THE OTHER KINDS OF ISSUES THAT HAVE COME UP IN THE PAST, ARE YOU FOR OPEN BORDERS, OR, DO YOU THINK THAT THERE’S GOT TO BE SOME LIMIT? DO YOU FAVOR TAKING AWAY PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE? WHERE ARE YOU ON ABORTION? ANY RESTRICTIONS? THE OTHER THING THAT I THINK IS GOING TO COME UP IS AGE. WE JUST HAD A 78-YEAR-OLD CANDIDATE GO– SUFFER A HEART ATTACK. I THINK THAT ISSUE IS GOING TO COME UP WITH RESPECT NOT JUST TO SANDERS, BUT WITH JOE BIDEN, WHO’S ALMOST THE SAME AGE. IT’S AN INTERESTING NOTION THAT IF EITHER OF THOSE TWO PEOPLE ARE ELECTED PRESIDENT, ON THEIR FIRST DAY IN OFFICE, THEY WILL BE OLDER THAN RONALD REAGAN WAS ON HIS LAST DAY. AND I THINK THAT’S AN ISSUE THAT’S GONNA HAUNT AT LEAST SANDERS AND BIDEN. POSSIBLY ELIZABETH WARREN, THOUGH THE POLLS SUGGESTS PEOPLE ARE LESS WORRIED ABOUT HER AGE THAN THEY ARE ABOUT SANDERS OR BIDEN.>>Thompson: TURNING NOW TO THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. FOR THE PAST THREE YEARS, PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS HAD ALMOST LOCKSTEP SUPPORT FROM CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS, BUT WE ARE STARTING TO SEE SOME CRACKS IN THAT RIGHT?>>YEAH, AND I THINK IT’S BECAUSE THE MORE IMMEDIATE ISSUES HAVE TO DO WITH FOREIGN POLICY MATTERS THAT ARE SPECIAL CONCERN TO SENATORS BECAUSE THEY’RE– THE SENATE IS THE BODY THAT RATIFIES TREATIES, CONFIRMS AMBASSADORS AND DIPLOMATS. AND WHAT THE PRESIDENT STANDS ACCUSED OF DOING WITH RESPECT TO UKRAINE IS HOLDING AN ALLY BESIEGED BY RUSSIA HOSTAGE TO HIS POLITICAL CONCERNS. SO DEPENDING ON WHAT NEXT WEEK’S WITNESSES SAY AT VARIOUS CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES, YOU CAN SEE SOME CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS BOTHERED BY THIS IN A WAY THAT OTHER THINGS THAT TRUMP HAS DONE DID NOT. I ALSO THINK THIS SUDDEN REVERSAL OF POLICY IN NORTHERN SYRIA, WHERE, AFTER A PHONE CALL WITH THE PRESIDENT OF TURKEY, WE’RE HEARING REPORTS OF CHAOS IN NORTHERN SYRIA, OF ISIS PRISONERS BEING FREED. THAT’S THE KIND OF RESULT THAT IS GOING TO BOTHER REPUBLICAN CONSERVATIVES WHO HAVE LONG ARGUED THAT WE NEED A MORE MUSCULAR FOREIGN POLICY.>>Thompson: I MEAN, HOW MUCH DO YOU THINK THIS IS GONNA WEAKEN THE PRESIDENT’S HAND AS, YOU KNOW, WE APPROACH THE PROBABLE, THE VERY PROBABLE LIKELIHOOD OF IMPEACHMENT IN THE HOUSE?>>YEAH, WELL, YOU KNOW, WE SHOULD THINK BACK TO THE CLINTON IMPEACHMENT WHEN ONLY FIVE DEMOCRATS, BASICALLY SOUTHERN DEMOCRATS WHO REALLY WEREN’T DEMOCRATS AT ALL, VOTED TO IMPEACH THE PRESIDENT AND NO DEMOCRAT IN THE SENATE VOTED TO CONVICT. AS OF NOW, I DON’T SEE MORE THAN A HANDFUL, FINGERS OF ONE HAND WITH SOME LEFTOVER, A COUPLE OF REPUBLICANS IN THE HOUSE WHO WILL VOTE FOR IMPEACHMENT. BUT UNLESS AND UNTIL A KIND OF REASONABLE NUMBER OF REPUBLICANS BREAK WITH HIM I THINK HE’S GOING TO CONTINUE TO FIGHT THIS ON THE BASIS THAT THIS IS PARTISAN POLITICS AND IT’S AN ATTEMPT TO UNDO THE 2016 ELECTION. AND THAT LINE IS GONNA HOLD UNTIL WE SEE SIGNS OF MORE, MORE CRACKS IN THE WALL THAN WE’VE SEEN SO FAR.>>Thompson: GREAT JEFF GREENFIELD, THANK YOU SO MUCH AS ALWAYS.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME.>>Thompson: FOR MORE ON TUESDAY’S PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE AND THE FIELD OF DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES, VISIT pbs.org/newshour.>>Thompson: MUCH OF THE NEWS OUT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION THESE DAYS HAS TO DO WITH ONE COUNTRY, THE UNITED KINGDOM, TRYING TO GET OUT. WHAT’S GETTING FAR LESS ATTENTION IS THE STORY OF A SMALL NATION MAKING A PLAY TO GET INTO THE E.U. AND IF IT GETS ITS WAY, IT WILL JOIN NATO AS WELL. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY REPORTS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA.>>I USE AMERICAN OAK. I USE FRENCH OAK, AND I USE HUNGARIAN OAK AND ALSO MACEDONIAN OAK.>>Reporter: WINEMAKER JORDAN TRAJKOV IS FACING AN UNUSUAL CHALLENGE. SO THE LABEL SAYS REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA.>>YES.>>Reporter: HE HAS TO CHANGE THE LABELS ON ALL OF HIS BOTTLES. AND IT’S GOING TO BE EXPENSIVE. 20,000 EUROS JUST TO CHANGE THE LABELS?>>JUST TO CHANGE THE LABELS.>>Reporter: IT’S PART OF THE COST OF DOING BUSINESS IN THIS AMBITIOUS COUNTRY THAT JUST LAST FEBRUARY TOOK THE EXTRAORDINARY STEP OF CHANGING ITS NAME FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA TO NORTH MACEDONIA, SOMETHING THE GOVERNMENT SAYS WAS NECESSARY TO MAKE POLITICAL PEACE WITH ITS NEIGHBOR, GREECE. ZORAN ZAEV, PRIME MINISTER OF NORTH MACEDONIA, LED THE CONTROVERSIAL NAME CHANGE CAMPAIGN. IT’S PART OF HIS PLAN TO GO ALL-OUT TO ALIGN WITH THE WEST. HIS COUNTRY OF ABOUT TWO MILLION PEOPLE IS LOCATED JUST NORTH OF GREECE. EVER SINCE IT GAINED INDEPENDENCE FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, ZAEV SAYS, IT’S HAD TWO PARALLEL OBJECTIVES.>>SINCE INDEPENDENCE IN 1991 THE FIRST PRIME GOALS FOR OUR COUNTRY WAS MEMBERSHIP OF NATO BECAUSE OF SECURITY AND PARTICIPATION OF KEEPING PEACE ALL AROUND THE WORLD AND OUR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.>>Reporter: BUT THOSE ASPIRATIONS, BEING PART OF THE NATO MILITARY ALLIANCE AND THE E.U. SINGLE MARKET, WERE BEING BLOCKED BY GREECE FOR A REASON THAT MAY SEEM ARCANE. GREECE HAS A REGION CALLED MACEDONIA– THE BIRTHPLACE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. THE NAME DATES BACK TO ANCIENT HISTORY, WHEN HISTORICAL MACEDONIA CONTAINED PARTS OF SIX BALKAN COUNTRIES, INCLUDING MODERN DAY GREECE AND NORTH MACEDONIA. BY CLAIMING THE NAME “REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA” IN 1991, THE NEW COUNTRY ANGERED GREECE. WERE THERE EVER ANY AMBITIONS ON THE PART OF NORTH MACEDONIA–>>NO. (LAUGHS)>>Reporter: –TO ACTUALLY ANNEX PARTS OF GREECE BECAUSE OF THE NAME?>>DISCUSSIONS ON TERRITORIAL CLAIMS BORDER SCIENCE FICTION.>>Reporter: DR. SIMONIDA KACARSKA IS DIRECTOR OF A LOCAL PRO-E.U. THINK TANK CALLED THE EUROPEAN POLICY INSTITUTE.>>IF WE TAKE A LOOK BACK, ESPECIALLY WHEN THESE ARGUMENTS WERE MADE IN THE EARLY 1990s, MACEDONIA WAS A COUNTRY WITHOUT THE ARMY. SO THESE CLAIMS IN MANY WAYS HAVE BEEN ALSO MISUSED BY POLITICIANS BOTH IN GREECE FOR NATIONALISTIC REASONS AND THEN LATER ON IN CERTAIN POINTS IN MACEDONIA AS WELL HAVING LEAD TO AN ESCALATION OF THE CONFLICT FOR THE NEXT 27 YEARS.>>ALBANIA, THEY ARE A MEMBER OF NATO.>>ALBANIA IS A MEMBER OF NATO, GREECE IS–>>Reporter: NORTH MACEDONIA’S DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER BUJAR OSMANI SAYS THERE WAS A NATURAL DESIRE FOR MACEDONIA TO BE PART OF BOTH NATO AND THE E.U.>>WE ARE SURROUNDED BY E.U. AND NATO MEMBER STATES.>>Reporter: AND HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES, WHICH WAS LOOKING FOR A STABLE PARTNER IN THE REGION, HAS BEEN VERY INVOLVED, HELPING NEGOTIATE PEACE BETWEEN ITS ETHNIC ALBANIAN AND MACEDONIAN POPULATION AND HELPING GROW THE COUNTRY’S DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS FROM SCRATCH.>>THE UNITED STATES THROUGH THEIR U.S. AID PROGRAM HAS SPENT $1-BILLION IN THE LAST 20 YEARS IN THE COUNTRY TO BUILD UP THE INSTITUTIONS, ESTABLISHING THE RULE OF LAW, MAINTAINING THE INTERETHNIC RELATIONS THAT WILL PROVIDE STABILITY OF THE COUNTRY.>>Reporter: ALTHOUGH THEY ARE DIFFERENT ENTITIES, THE E.U. AND NATO HAVE SIMILAR REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMBERSHIP, INCLUDING THAT VOTES TO ALLOW NEW MEMBERS MUST BE UNANIMOUS. WHEN THE THEN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA THOUGHT IT WAS GOING TO BE ADMITTED TO NATO IN 2008, GREECE VETOED IT– AND LATER MADE IT CLEAR IT WOULD BLOCK THE COUNTRY’S MEMBERSHIP IN THE E.U. AS WELL.>>MEMBERSHIP IN NATO AND ALSO THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR THIS PART OF THE WORLD IS UNDERSTOOD AS A VALIDATION OF YOUR STATEHOOD. THE CITIZENS, THEY OVERWHELMINGLY SUPPORT NATO AND E.U. MEMBERSHIP, BETWEEN 70% AND 80% OF THE POPULATION. SO IF THIS IS A SHARED GOAL AND EVERYONE HAS BEEN WORKING TOWARDS IT THEN THE DISAPPOINTMENT THAT COMES WITH IT IS ALSO BIG.>>Reporter: AFTER GREECE’S VETO, MACEDONIA’S THEN-RIGHT WING NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT WAS EMBOLDENED, AND AMPED UP TENSIONS WITH GREECE BY LAUNCHING A HUGE BUILDING PROJECT IN THE COUNTRY’S CAPITAL, SKOPJE. IT ERECTED DOZENS OF STATUES OF WHAT IT CLAIMED WERE “MACEDONIAN” HEROES LIKE ALEXANDER THE GREAT, WHOM GREECE CLAIMS AS ITS OWN. THEN, IN 2017, A NEW PRO-WESTERN GOVERNMENT WAS VOTED IN LED BY PRIME MINISTER ZAEV. HE HELD TALKS WITH THEN GREEK PRIME MINISTER ALEXIS TSIPRAS AND SIGNED AN AGREEMENT WHICH CONTAINED ZAEV’S PROMISE TO DIAL BACK THE NATIONALISM AND RENAME THE COUNTRY NORTH MACEDONIA TO DISTINGUISH ITSELF FROM THE GREEK PROVINCE. HEADLINES CALLED IT A BREAKTHROUGH AGREEMENT. ZAEV AND TSIPRAS WERE BOTH NOMINATED FOR THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.>>I AM VERY PROUD. FOR ME IT’S HISTORY. I AM PROUD, MY CHILDREN ARE PROUD. MY FRIENDS ARE PROUD. WHY? BECAUSE I HELPED MY COUNTRY FINALLY AFTER 28 YEARS TO BE PART OF THE MODERN WESTERN DEMOCRATIC WORLD.>>Reporter: BESIDES CHANGING THE NAME, THE COUNTRY HAS RENAMED THE HIGHWAY LEADING TO GREECE “FRIENDSHIP HIGHWAY,” CHANGED THE AIRPORT’S NAME FROM ALEXANDER THE GREAT TO SKOPJE INTERNATIONAL, AND IS CONSIDERING HOW BEST TO PUBLICLY IDENTIFY THIS STATUE AND OTHERS TO MAKE IT CLEAR THEY ARE NOT “MACEDONIAN” PER SE, BUT PART OF ANCIENT “GREEK” HISTORY. BUT THE NAME CHANGE HAS ALSO PROVED DEEPLY UNPOPULAR TO MANY.>>I IDENTIFY MYSELF AS MACEDONIAN. MY COUNTRY IS MACEDONIA. REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA.>>Reporter: VLADIMIR CETKAR IS A WELL-KNOWN MACEDONIAN MUSICIAN AND OUTSPOKEN NAME CHANGE CRITIC.>>IT’S VERY UNFORTUNATE THAT WE ARE PUT IN A POSITION TO BE APOLOGETIC OF WHO WE ARE. TO SAY “I’M SORRY I’M MACEDONIAN. OH, I’M SORRY THAT I SAID THAT.” THIS IS THE FEELING, AND I DEFINITELY THINK THAT NOBODY, NO NATION IN THE WORLD SHOULD GO THROUGH THIS.>>Reporter: BUT THE GOVERNMENT INSISTS THE CHANGE TO THE COUNTRY’S NAME WILL PAY OFF IN THE END. ALL READY IT SAYS THE WORK IT’S DONE TO MEET E.U. STANDARDS HAS CONTRIBUTED TO A BETTER ECONOMY, A DROP IN UNEMPLOYMENT AND INCREASED WAGES. ZAEV SAYS HE ALSO WANTS TO DO MORE TO LURE BACK THE THOUSANDS OF YOUNG PEOPLE WHO HAVE LEFT THE COUNTRY LOOKING FOR BETTER OPPORTUNITIES. PEOPLE LIKE MARTINA NAUMOVSKA.>>I HAVE FRIENDS THAT LEFT AND I HAVE ALSO MANY FRIENDS THAT CAME BACK. WHICH IS THE GOOD THING.>>Reporter: NAUMOVSKA STUDIED AND WORKED IN THE E.U. BEFORE DECIDING TO RETURN TO HELP RUN AND TEACH AT A NEW I.T. STARTUP IN HER HOME COUNTRY.>>WHEN I FINISH A CLASS IN MACEDONIA I FEEL LIKE I DID SOMETHING GREAT, WHICH IS A FEELING THAT, YOU KNOW, ONLY PROBABLY YOU CAN HAVE WHEN YOU DO SOMETHING IN A COUNTRY THAT YOU WERE RAISED AND WHERE YOUR ROOTS ARE.>>Reporter: THIS WEEK, THE E.U. COUNCIL IS SCHEDULED TO VOTE ON WHETHER TO LET NORTH MACEDONIA START THE PROCESS OF JOINING THE E.U. IT’S AN IMPORTANT STEP, BUT A BUREAUCRATIC PROCESS THAT WILL STILL TAKE SEVERAL YEARS TO COMPLETE. AND THERE ARE OBSTACLES AHEAD. FRANCE HAS EXPRESSED SKEPTICISM ABOUT ALLOWING ANY NEW E.U. MEMBERS. NORTH MACEDONIA’S FORMER CHIEF SPECIAL PROSECUTOR HAS BEEN ARRESTED IN AN EXTORTION SCANDAL, RAISING E.U. CONCERNS ABOUT CORRUPTION. ARE YOU OPTIMISTIC THAT NORTH MACEDONIA IS GOING TO JOIN NATO?>>YES. THE RATIFICATION PROCESS OF OUR NATO ACCESSION PROTOCOL IS GOING WELL.>>Reporter: ARE YOU OPTIMISTIC THAT NORTH MACEDONIA IS GOING TO JOIN THE EUROPEAN UNION?>>TO A CERTAIN LEVEL, LESS THAN ON THE CASE OF NATO AND IT IS GOING TO BE A MUCH MORE UPHILL BATTLE AND A MUCH LONGER BATTLE. WE’VE LEARNED FROM OUR HISTORY THAT THERE’S NO GUARANTEES.>>Reporter: YOU HAVE THE E.U. FLAG UP HERE.>>YES. THE NEXT STEP THE EUROPEAN UNION MUST MAKE DECISION. WE MAKE IT FROM OUR SIDE. NOW THEY NEED TO DELIVER.>>Reporter: PRIME MINISTER ZAEV HAS A MORE PERSONAL CONCERN. THAT DELAY COULD LEAD TO A BACKLASH THAT WILL UNDERMINE HIS COALITION IN PARLIAMENT AND CAUSE HIS GOVERNMENT TO FALL. THEY WILL DESTROY YOUR GOVERNMENT?>>YES, COMPLETELY. THE MAJORITY WILL BE DISMISSED.>>Reporter: SO THE STAKES ARE HIGH?>>YES. VERY HIGH.>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,SUNDAY.>>Thompson: THERE ARE MANY STILL UNDISCOVERED ANCIENT TOMBS IN EGYPT BUT THIS PAST WEEK, FOR THE FIRST TIME, ARCHEOLOGISTS UNVEILED THE DISCOVERY OF SITES WHERE WORKERS MADE THE OBJECTS USED IN THOSE ROYAL BURIALS. THE WORKSHOPS PRODUCED POTTERY, JEWELRY, DECORATIONS AND EVEN FURNITURE. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S IVETTE FELICIANO HAS MORE.>>Reporter: THE LATEST FINDS DATE BACK TO EGYPT’S EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY WHICH LASTED FROM 1539 B.C TO 1292 B.C. NEAR LUXOR, IN AN AREA KNOWN AS “THE VALLEY OF THE MONKEYS,” THE MINISTRY OF ANTIQUITIES SHOWED OFF RELICS FROM WHAT IS BEING CALLED AN INDUSTRIAL ZONE WITH 30 WORKSHOPS. ARCHEOLOGISTS BELIEVE LABORERS THERE MADE THE DECORATIVE OBJECTS FOR TOMBS IN THE NEARBY VALLEY OF THE KINGS.>>IT IS THE FIRST TIME THAT ANY DISCOVERY LIKE THIS HAPPENED IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS. IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS ALL WE DISCOVERED ARE ROYAL TOMBS, OR WORKER MEN HUTS. BUT THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT YOU SEE AN INDUSTRIAL AREA TO SERVE THE WORKMEN WHO WORKED ON DECORATING THE COFFINS, TO A WORKSHOP FOR MAKING ALL THE FURNITURE AND THE ARTIFACTS. IT IS THE FIRST TIME TO REVEAL MANY SECRETS ABOUT THE WEST VALLEY.>>Reporter: THE LATEST DISCOVERIES– INCLUDING A SCARAB RING, BEADS AND DECORATIVE OBJECTS– MAY MEAN MORE ROYAL TOMBS ARE STILL UNDISCOVERED NEARBY.>>WE FOUND IN THIS AREA OTHER IMPORTANT THINGS LIKE THE RING, THAT HAS THE NAME OF EL HOTTOB III, AND ANOTHER SILVER RING FOR A QUEEN. MEANS THERE IS A ROYAL TOMB IN THIS AREA AROUND HERE.>>Reporter: THE INDUSTRIAL WORKSHOPS ARE THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF MAJOR EGYPTIAN ARCHEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES. THE COUNTRY IS FUNDING MORE RESEARCH AND EXCAVATIONS TO ENCOURAGE TOURISM AND TO HELP PROMOTE ITS LONG-DELAYED GRAND EGYPTIAN MUSEUM NEAR CAIRO– NOW SCHEDULED TO OPEN IN 2020.>>Thompson: AND FINALLY TONIGHT, U.S. GYMNAST SIMONE BILES SET A NEW MEDAL RECORD TODAY. AT THE WORLD ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS CHAMPIONSHIPS BILES WON HER 25th CAREER WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP MEDAL, A GOLD IN THE INDIVIDUAL FLOOR EXERCISE. THE PREVIOUS RECORD OF 23 MEDALS WAS SET MORE THAN TWO DECADES AGO. BILES SAID SHE WAS THRILLED WITH HER PERFORMANCES THIS WEEK BUT AS FOR THE MEDAL COUNT, SHE SAID SHE’S “NOT A NUMBER PERSON.” THAT IS ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M MEGAN THOMPSON, THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT.


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